It seems to be a unique idea. Google "topological battlefield maps". Here, I'll help you. There's her post, sitting pretty at #1. According to Wikipedia, her maps are rightly classified as examples of topological maps. Some quick searching on Google failed to turn ip any references to military use of topological maps. What references I can find seem to use "topological map" as a synonym for "topographic map", which is obviously wrong in this case.
This is the sort of thing that really grabs my attention. It's such a useful idea that I'm absolutely positive that it has to have been used, in some form or another, by the military already. I suspect that they're missing from my Google searches because I lack the proper terms to turn up the real references that would have to be lurking. Knowing the modern military mind, they're probably in use, but called "Tangential Interstitial Ground Emphasis Resources" or "von Hagen models" or something else that's unique in military jargon.
I'm croggled just thinking of the possibilities for analysis and planning that these kind of maps imply.